Hitler an Antichrist

Revelation-Antichrist-Hitler

Pope who turned his back on Hitler

 

Part Two:Hitler an Antichrist

 

by 

Damien F. Mackey


“Pius XI regarded Hitler as “the greatest enemy of Christ and of the Church

in modern times,” and compared the Führer to an Antichrist”.

 

 

According to Part One in this series:

 

Pope Pius XI had left the Vatican in late April 1938, earlier than usual for his summer retreat at Castel Gandolfo. He intended it to be an obvious snub directed at Adolf Hitler who was meeting the first week in May with Italian leader Benito Mussolini.

 

The pope rejected being present while the “crooked cross of neo-paganism” flew over Rome. Hitler’s anti-Semitic campaign had become the pope’s great preoccupation.

 

Along similar lines we read at Zenit:

https://zenit.org/articles/pius-xi-considered-hitler-an-antichrist/

 

Pius XI Considered Hitler an Antichrist

 

Italian Archives Shed Light on Pope´s View in 1938

….

ROME, MAR. 5, 2001 (Zenit.org). – If Adolf Hitler had wished to visit the Vatican, Pius XI would have had the Führer first ask publicly for forgiveness for persecuting the Catholic Church in Germany.

Pius XI regarded Hitler as “the greatest enemy of Christ and of the Church in modern times,” and compared the Führer to an Antichrist.

“The persecution against the Catholic Church in Germany was his work, wholly and solely his, enough was already known about it to be able to state it without fear of a denial,” the Pope said.

These revelations have come to light in the correspondence of Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano, which has just been reviewed in the archives of the Foreign Ministry in Rome.

The documents go back to the early days of April 1938, one month before Hitler´s trip to Rome. He had been invited by Benito Mussolini. The Nazi leader did not visit the Vatican.

The documents were published by Gianluca Andre, professor of international political history at the University of Rome, in a new volume entitled “Italian Diplomatic Documents,” printed by the State Polygraphic Institute.

Pius XI spoke of a possible visit of Hitler to the Vatican, during a reserved conversation on April 7, 1938, with Bonifacio Pignatti, ambassador of the Fascist government to the Vatican. Ciano and Mussolini were informed by ambassador Pignatti that Pius XI deprecated “the apotheosis of Mr. Hitler” being prepared in Rome.

 

Immoral, idolatrous “Jezebel” mirrors Woman upon a Beast

Image result for scarlet beast

by

 Damien F. Mackey

‘Nevertheless, I have this against you: You tolerate that woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophet. By her teaching she misleads my servants into sexual immorality and the eating of food sacrificed to idols. I have given her time to repent of her immorality, but she is unwilling. So I will cast her on a bed of suffering, and I will make those who commit adultery with her suffer intensely, unless they repent of her ways. I will strike her children dead’.

Revelation 2:20-23

 

No doubt “Jezebel” here is meant to be taken metaphorically, having in mind the original Jezebel, that notorious queen of the Old Testament who was the wife of King Ahab of Israel. For, according to the following testimony of commander Jehu to Jezebel’s son, King Jehoram – {Jehu would oversee the death of this first Jezebel} – she was, just like her ‘re-incarnation’ in the Apocalypse, an idolatrous and immoral witch (2 Kings 9:21-22):

 

And Jehoram said, ‘Make ready’. And his chariot was made ready. And Jehoram king of Israel and Ahaziah king of Judah went out, each in his chariot, and they went out against Jehu, and met him in the portion of Naboth the Jezreelite.

 

And it came to pass, when Jehoram saw Jehu, that he said, ‘Is it peace, Jehu?’ And he answered, ‘What peace, so long as the whoredoms of thy mother Jezebel and her witchcrafts are so many?’

 

This first Jezebel I have been able to identify with – thanks to the benefits of a revised history and chronology – the famous Queen Nefertiti herself.

For example, in my:

 

The Shattering Fall of Queen Nefertiti. Part One: Nefertiti as Jezebel

https://www.academia.edu/31038511/The_Shattering_Fall_of_Queen_Nefertiti._Part_One_Nefertiti_as_Jezebel

 

and:

 

Queen Nefertiti Sealed as Jezebel

 

https://www.academia.edu/31088456/Queen_Nefertiti_Sealed_as_Jezebel

 

giving her also an identification in the now contemporaneous El Amarna correspondence:

 

Queen Jezebel in the El Amarna Letters

https://www.academia.edu/8459056/Queen_Jezebel_in_the_El_Amarna_Letters

 

The following article gives an outline of the two biblical Jezebels:

 

Bible Question: Who was Jezebel?

 

Bible Answer: There are two Jezebels in the Bible. The first one is found in the Old Testament, and the second one is found in the New Testament.

 

Jezebel – Old Testament. The first time the name Jezebel occurs in the Bible is when she is getting married to King Ahab in 1 Kings 16:31,

And Ahab the son of Omri did evil in the sight of the LORD more than all who were before him. And it came about, as though it had been a trivial thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, that he married Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal king of the Sidonians, and went to serve Baal and worshiped him. 1 Kings 16:30-31 (NASB)

She was an evil woman who killed many prophets of God while feeding and caring for the prophets of two gods called Baal and Asherah (1 Kings 18:1-19). In 1 Kings 18:20-46 Ahab, Elijah and 450 prophets of Baal gather to see, “Who is God?” Elijah puts it simply,

How long will you hesitate between two opinions? If the Lord is God, follow Him; but if Baal, follow him. 1 Kings 18:21 (NASB)

What followed was a one-sided contest. The followers of Baal prepared a sacrifice but Baal never sent fire to consume the sacrifice even though the 450 prophets called to Baal all day pleading, “O Baal, answer us.” Then they even cut themselves with swords and lances and still Baal did not answer. Baal never responded. Finally, Elijah poured water on his sacrifice three times. After Elijah prayed, God sent fire from heaven to consume his sacrifice. Elijah killed the prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18:40). Therefore, Jezebel sought to kill Elijah (1 Kings 19:1-2).

In 1 Kings 21:5-25 Jezebel had Naboth the Jezreelite killed so that her husband could own Naboth’s vineyard. What a wicked woman! Eventually, Jezebel was trampled to death by horses (2 Kings 9:30-37). Then dogs ate her flesh, leaving only her skull and the palms of her hands. What a horrible way to die. Jezebel was a wicked, evil, adulterous woman who was fighting against God.

 

Jezebel – New Testament. The name Jezebel is used for a woman once again in Revelation 2:18-29. Here, Jezebel is described as a prophetess, a false teacher, an immoral woman and idol worshipper. She attended a church at Thyatira. She encouraged those who attended the church to engage in sexual sin and worship other gods.

But I have this against you, that you tolerate the woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess, and she teaches and leads My bond-servants astray so that they commit acts of immorality and eat things sacrificed to idols. And I gave her time to repent; and she does not want to repent of her immorality. Rev. 2:20-21 (NASB)

She was like the Jezebel in the Old Testament. They share many of the same characteristics. God warned this Jezebel that He would punish her if she did not stop teaching this evil and repent. God not only warned Jezebel the teacher, He also warned her followers to stop and repent (Rev. 2:22-23).

And I will kill her children with pestilence, and all the churches will know that I am He who searches the minds and hearts; and I will give to each one of you according to your deeds. Rev. 2:23 (NASB) ….

 

 

Who was Apocalypse’s “Jezebel”?

 

 

 

“The theory that Simon [Magus] was accustomed to borrow from paganism IS CORROBORATED by the assertion of the Fathers that he and Helena were worshipped by their sect with the attributes of ZEUS and ATHENE and received the cult-title ‘Lord’ and ‘Lady’ ….”.

 

 

 

There are those who think that the “Jezebel” referred to by St. John the Evangelist in Revelation 2:20-23 was likely the notorious Helena, wife of Simon Magus. Thus we read, for example, at: http://www.hwalibrary.com/cgi-bin/get/hwa.cgi?action=getmagazine&InfoID=1389529982

 

 

Prostitute Prophetess

 

First, we notice that John says this “Jezebel” called herself a “prophetess” (Rev. 2:20). There must have been a particular false prophetess which had caused God’s servants to commit fornication and to eat things sacrificed to idols. By looking on this “Jezebel” as having been contemporaneous with all the heresies of the other Churches — and that these heresies were in reality only ONE false system which originated with Simon Magus — we can then easily see that this “Jezebel” can be equated with the “Female Principle” which Simon introduced into his “Christianity.” None other than Simon’s Helen — the reclaimed temple prostitute from Tyre. Helen WAS a prostitute — what better type of person is there who could so expertly “teach” and “seduce My servants to commit fornication,” literally as well as spiritually?
Simon Magus came in contact with a priestess of Tyre who had been a temple prostitute. The Samaritans worshiped SUCCOTH-BENOTH who was the goddess VENUS. Her devotees continually prostituted themselves. It was their religious duty to do so.
This woman was overawed by Simon’s demonistic power and was persuaded to follow him — to live with him — to become the female principle, the necessary counterpart to his claim as being a type of male deity. Relative to this, the Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 25, p. 126, quoting from Justin [Martyr] states: “And almost all the Samaritans and a few among the other nations, acknowledge and adore him as the first god. And one Helen, who went about with him at the time, who before had had her stand in a brothel, they say was the First Thought that was brought into being by him.”
This is interesting because Justin was himself a Samaritan — born and reared in the country. He certainly knew his people’s native traditions and teachings. What he says agrees exactly with the New Testament revelation of how the Samaritans regarded Simon. They actually called him the “great power of God” (Acts 8:10). It is because of this that they believed him to have creative powers. He himself said he created Helen, his female companion whom he later elevated to a goddess.
“Irenaenus, Theodoret, and Epiphanius agree in identifying Simon with the Supreme God and Helena with ennoia, the first conception of his mind and his agent in creation” (Dict. of Religion of Ethics, vol. 11, p. 517).
What blasphemy!! But this is what he taught everywhere he went — and under the guise of Christianity.

 

Typically Pagan

 

There always had to be the Man and Woman divinities in paganism. Or, to make it plain, Nimrod and Semiramis.
Now notice what the Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics says about this teaching of Simon which he took to Rome and they accepted: “The original of Simon’s Helena is the moon-goddess of Syria and Babylonia. In the Clementine Recognitions Helena is always translated ‘Luna.’ The theory that Simon was accustomed to borrow from paganism IS CORROBORATED by the assertion of the Fathers that he and Helena were worshipped by their sect with the attributes of ZEUS and ATHENE and received the cult-title ‘Lord’ and ‘Lady’ (i.e. our Lord and our Lady)” (ibid. p. 518).

 

As stated before, it was Simon’s plan to bring about a UNIVERSAL religion under the powerful name of Christianity. Remember that Simon NEVER gave up the Christian name.
His followers were called Christians. In amalgamating the pagan Babylonian religious beliefs with Christianity, he placed himself at the head — the personification of the chief pagan gods of old, and Helena as his companion in creation, the personification of the female deities. The name Helena for his consort fit his plan exceptionally well.

 

“There existed a wide-spread cult of the moon goddess in Syria and Egypt under the name Helene; she was identified with Aphrodite, Atargatis, and the Egyptian Isis, who was after represented with Horns to betoken her relation to the moon. One feature of the myth of Helen can be traced to the very ancient connection of the religion of Osiris with Syria. According to legend, Isis spent ten years at a brothel in Tyre during the course of her wanderings in search of the scattered limbs of her husband. The imprisonment of Helen (Simon’s Helen) is then only a variant of the many myths relating the degradation of the Queen of Heaven” (ibid.).
How important these observations are, for Osiris was clearly Nimrod and Isis was Semiramis. Thus, Simon Magus said that he had been the power that motivated Nimrod and that Helen was Semiramis — the Queen of Heaven.

 

Now let us carefully note that Simon brought his “Female Principle” from the City of TYRE. And who was the original Jezebel — the woman who seduced Israel to worship BAAL? She was the daughter of the king of the Sidonians whose capital city was TYRE. (I Kings 16:31). The original Jezebel was also from TYRE.
And not only that, Helen claimed herself to be the creation of Simon — that it was Simon who brought her into existence (Ency. Britannica, vol. 25, p. 126). She was, in a sense, the daughter of Simon. But, the original Jezebel WAS THE LITERAL DAUGHTER OF THE KING OF TYRE (I Kings 16:31).

 

 

 

“Jezebel” and the scarlet “Woman”

 

 

 

 

“Then the angel carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness. There I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was covered with blasphemous names and had seven heads and ten horns. The woman was dressed in purple and scarlet, and was glittering with gold, precious stones and pearls. She held a golden cup in her hand, filled with abominable things and the filth of her adulteries”.

 

Revelation 17:3-4

 

 

 

 

Having checked up on the chiastic structure of the Book of Revelation, I was not surprised to find that, at least according to the article, “A Double Chiasm in the Book of Revelation”, Chapter 2, which refers to “Jezebel”, parallels Chapter 17, in which appears the adulteress “woman”. Here is the proposed structure:

https://bookofdanielamaic.files.wordpress.com/2017/04/a26f0-revelationdoublechiasm.pdf

 

An Overall Structure of Revelation

 

Prologue (1:1-20)

Seven Epistles (2:1-3:22)

Seven Seals (4:1-8:1)

144,000 Saints and Seven Trumpets (7:1-111:19)

The Two Witnesses (11:1-13)

The Woman Clothed with the Sun (12:1)

Dragon in Heaven (12:4)

Women Flees into the Wilderness (12:6)

                     Satan Cast Out (12:12)

Woman Fells into the Wilderness (12:14)

Dragon on Earth (12:15)

Woman’s Seed Keeps God’s Commands (12:17)

The Two Beasts (13:1-18)

144,000 Saints and Seven Angels (14:1-15:4)

Seven Bowls (15:1, 5-16:21)

Seven Angels: Whore of Babylon vs. New Jerusalem (17:1-22:5)

Epilogue (22:6-21)

 

 

Here is the full text of Chapter 17 (vv. 1-18):

 

One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and said to me, “Come, I will show you the punishment of the great prostitute, who sits by many waters.

With her the kings of the earth committed adultery, and the inhabitants of the earth were intoxicated with the wine of her adulteries.”

Then the angel carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness. There I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was covered with blasphemous names and had seven heads and ten horns. The woman was dressed in purple and scarlet, and was glittering with gold, precious stones and pearls. She held a golden cup in her hand, filled with abominable things and the filth of her adulteries. The name written on her forehead was a mystery:

 

babylon the great

the mother of prostitutes

and of the abominations of the earth.

 

I saw that the woman was drunk with the blood of God’s holy people, the blood of those who bore testimony to Jesus.

When I saw her, I was greatly astonished. Then the angel said to me: “Why are you astonished? I will explain to you the mystery of the woman and of the beast she rides, which has the seven heads and ten horns. The beast, which you saw, once was, now is not, and yet will come up out of the Abyss and go to its destruction. The inhabitants of the earth whose names have not been written in the book of life from the creation of the world will be astonished when they see the beast, because it once was, now is not, and yet will come.

This calls for a mind with wisdom. The seven heads are seven hills on which the woman sits. They are also seven kings. Five have fallen, one is, the other has not yet come; but when he does come, he must remain for only a little while. The beast who once was, and now is not, is an eighth king. He belongs to the seven and is going to his destruction.

The ten horns you saw are ten kings who have not yet received a kingdom, but who for one hour will receive authority as kings along with the beast. They have one purpose and will give their power and authority to the beast. They will wage war against the Lamb, but the Lamb will triumph over them because he is Lord of lords and King of kings—and with him will be his called, chosen and faithful followers.”

Then the angel said to me, “The waters you saw, where the prostitute sits, are peoples, multitudes, nations and languages. The beast and the ten horns you saw will hate the prostitute. They will bring her to ruin and leave her naked; they will eat her flesh and burn her with fire. For God has put it into their hearts to accomplish his purpose by agreeing to hand over to the beast their royal authority, until God’s words are fulfilled. The woman you saw is the great city that rules over the kings of the earth.

 

 

 

 

 

Apocalyptic Apoplexy

Part One: Saving the ‘Literal’ Level

 by

Damien F. Mackey

 

 The term “Antichrist” does not occur anywhere in the Book of Apocalypse (Revelation).

  

A friend has written, and sent to me, the following brief review of a no-doubt fascinating book by Emmet O’Regan, entitled Unveiling the Apocalypse. The Final Passover of the Church (2011):

 

Damien,

 

This is my summary of the book Unveiling the Apocalypse by Emmet O’Regan

 

O’Regan’s basic thesis is that many of the events narrated in the Apocalypse have taken place in the 20th century but he also outlines what has not yet taken place and locates fairly exactly where he thinks we are currently positioned.  In brief he holds that around 1900 following upon Leo’s vision we had the “unbinding” of Satan after the millennium.  On this point, he notes that Augustine had two interpretations of the millennium in The City of God the first of which became largely forgotten.  The latter, more common interpretation is that the millennium represents an indeterminate amount of time following the binding of Satan at our Lord’s Passion.  The other interpretation he proposed is that the millennium stands for the Sabbath millennium i.e towards the end (but not exactly at the end) of six thousand years from creation the unbinding would happen.  In his day the Septuagint genealogical interpretation was common which meant that the Sabbath millennium would be around 500AD.  It was Bede who calculated 3992 years based on the Hebrew text – since adjusted slightly by others.  O’Regan points out that an unbinding of Satan around the time of 1900 fits with the Sabbath millennium.  Now O’Regan himself does not hold to a young age for man so he sees this as being of “prophetic” significance rather than literal but he really likes it (whereas I would take it more literally).  

 

Now, there has also been interesting new research done by Kevin Symonds in his new book on the St Michael prayer and Leo’s vision (which I have already recently read).  It turns out saying it happened on October 13th 1884 is one of those made up facts.  In fact we don’t know a lot for sure about the content of the vision, but Symonds concludes that we can say one took place.  The earliest accounts that place a time frame for Satan’s period of greater freedom are 50-60 years not the commonly cited 100.  O’Regan has a fascinating take on this as one of the accounts of the vision (though we must be cautious) depicts God as saying to Satan that they would “talk later.”  So for the next sixty years Satan “gathered the nations for war” as it says in the Apocalypse and we had the worst wars humanity has ever seen.  O’Regan speculates that around the mid century Satan probably re-bargained for another 50-60 years with a different strategy –  a more direct attack on the Church. Hence from 1960 everything has gone up in flames within the Church and Pope Paul himself said the smoke of Satan had entered.  This … parallels Job, a type of the Church, who was first attacked Satan by losing all his friends and property.  Satan then bargained again and sent an outbreak of sores on Job himself.  O’Regan argues that around the years 1999/ 2000 we had the casting down of Satan from heaven (which is the context of the discussion regarding the eclipse).  It appears that prior to this final casting out Satan always had some access to the heavenly court in order to accuse humanity of its sins hence “the accuser of our brethren has been cast out”.  Now, as O’Regan says, the problem most people have is after the year 2000 the situation in the world hardly began to ameliorate itself.  Hence such an idea comes across as self evidently incorrect to most (after all it was after that time that homosexual marriage became legalised everywhere etc not to mention the current situation in the Church).  O’Regan points out this is what we should expect. For it says in the Apocalypse that upon the casting out of Satan the heavens should rejoice but “woe to the earth” for in his fury at being cast down he lets forth a flood upon the earth against the woman.  O’Regan argues that is where we currently find ourselves – enduring this last outpouring of Satan’s wrath.

 

Now, if he is correct, this has helped me figure out another puzzle (though this is not discussed in his book).  I have had trouble figuring out Sr Lucia’s words that the battle against marriage and the family will be the devil’s last battle.  It seems clear to me after all that Antichrist is not yet here but supposedly we are in the midst of this last battle.  However, I now see from O’Regan that after Satan is cast to earth his power is then transferred to Antichrist.  So the devil’s last battle and the last battle are not the same thing.

 

So, what we are currently waiting for, according to this account, is the appearance of the two witnesses to restore the Church (which he says are the holy pope and emperor) and the preaching of the Gospel to all nations through them.  Towards the end of this period the Antichrist will arise and fight against them and after Antichrist is defeated then the end will come.

 

Mackey’s response:

 

Since the interpretations given here, and the associated timetable, are quite different from those that I personally favour (which does not necessarily mean that O’Regan is wrong), I should like to give my reasons for why I must disagree with O’Regan (as here summarised).

 

Failure to recognise the “literal” level

 

Whilst I myself have not read O’Regan’s book, and so am dependent upon my friend’s summary of it, I have read this type of book before, this same sort of approach to the intriguing Book of Apocalypse. That is:

 

“O’Regan’s basic thesis is that many of the events narrated in the Apocalypse have taken place in the 20th century …”.

 

The most notable book of this type that springs to mind is Fr. Herman Kramer’s engrossing The Book of Destiny (Tan, 1975).

 

 

Years ago my friends and I were completely hooked on it. What a fascinating read!

I have referred to it briefly in, for instance:

 

John the Evangelist and Vincent Ferrer

 

https://www.academia.edu/32575584/John_the_Evangelist_and_Vincent_Ferrer

 

as follows:

 

Fr. Herman B. Kramer … has brought some connections between St. John and St. Vincent Ferrer in his captivating study on the Apocalypse, The Book of Destiny (Tan, 1975). According to Fr. Kramer’s interpretation of the Apocalypse, each chapter [can] be linked literally to an important era of Christian history. For instance, Revelation chapters 8 and 9 Fr. Kramer aligned with, respectively, the Great Western Schism (C14th-15th AD) and the Protestant Reformation (C16th AD).

Perhaps Fr. Kramer’s lynchpin for all this was his identifying of the Eagle, or angel of judgment, of Revelation 8:13, or 14:6, with St. Vincent Ferrer, OP. (ibid., pp. 208-9):

 

By a wonderful co-incidence a great saint appears at this stage [the Western Schism] in the history of the Church. His eminence and influence procured for him the distinction of an eagle flying through mid-heaven. This was the Dominican priest, St. Vincent Ferrer. When in 1398 he lay at death’s door with fever, our Lord, St. Francis and St. Dominic appeared to him, miraculously cured him of his fever and commissioned him to preach penance and prepare men for the coming judgments. Preaching in the open space in San Esteban on October 3, 1408 he solemnly declared that he was the angel of the judgment spoken of by St. John in the Apocalypse. The body of a woman was just being carried to St. Paul’s church nearby for burial. St. Vincent ordered the bearers to bring the corpse before him. He adjured the dead to testify whether his claim was true or not. The dead woman came to life and in the hearing of all bore witness to the truth of the saint’s claim and then slept again in death (Fr. Stanislaus Hogan O.P.).

[End of quotes]

 

With all due respect to the supposed testimony of this briefly resuscitated woman, the entire Book of Apocalypse (consisting of 22 chapters) right up to approximately the early verses of chapter 20, at least, belongs to an era – Saint John’s own era – when the old Judaïc system was still in place. I explained this in my:

 

Book of Revelation Theme: The Bride and the Reject

 

https://www.academia.edu/8230853/Book_of_Revelation_Theme_The_Bride_and_the_Reject

Here is a small part of what I wrote there (emphasis added):

 

What has exacerbated the whole exegetical problem of properly interpreting Revelation on a literal level is, I believe, the conventional opinion that St. John wrote this Apocalypse in hoary old age, in c. 95 AD, about a quarter of a century after Jerusalem had been destroyed. Hence many commentators are loath to see any relevance for Revelation in the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. Protestant and Catholic writers alike accept the late 95 AD date of authorship (Protestant Thomas Foster sharing this view in common with Opus Dei and Fr. Kramer).

 

However, with the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran, there has emerged a new scholarship of great expertise as typified by Fr. Jean Carmignac, showing that the books of the New Testament literature (esp. the Gospels), were composed much earlier than was originally thought.

 

And the signs are that the entire New Testament, including Revelation, pre-dates 70 AD.

 

I believe that there is abundant evidence in the Apocalypse to indicate that it was written early. In fact the reason that prevented my writing this article initially was: Where to start? There is so much! My effort in the end had been greatly assisted by my finding Gentry’s preterist interpretation on the eve of commencing this article.

 

The whole Book of Revelation is focussed upon the Holy Land and especially Jerusalem. The Temple; the golden altar; the 24 elders keeping watch at Beth Moked in the north from where an attack might come (and general Titus did in fact take Jerusalem from there, at the city’s weakest point); the sabbath restrictions; etc., etc.

 

Apart from their late dating of St. John’s Revelation preventing commentators from recognising the obvious, that “Babylon” is Jerusalem, this path they have taken leads them into other awkward anomalies as well. It is commonly believed that St. Paul had already completed his missionary activity and had been martyred well before St. John the Evangelist wrote the Book of Revelation. Paul is given the credit for having established the seven churches to which John later wrote. This view forces commentators into making such strange observations as Fr. Kramer’s: “… St. John could not have interfered in the administration of the churches in the lifetime of St. Paul” (op. cit., pp. 7-8).

 

Oh, no? Was St. Paul (who even refers to himself as a very late arrival on the scene, I Corinthians 15:8) greater than St. John, the Beloved Disciple of Our Lord?

St. Paul himself would answer us an emphatic: ‘No’! Of his visit to Jerusalem after his 14 year absence, he tells us: “… James, Cephas and John, these leaders, these pillars, shook hands with Barnabas and me …. The only thing they insisted on was that we should remember to help the poor …” (Galatians 2:9, 10).

 

St. John was by no means subservient to St. Paul; but apparently gave orders to the latter.

 

All the Apostles had a hand in establishing the churches throughout Judaea and Samaria, as Jesus Christ had commanded them, and then “to the ends of the earth”, which St. Paul boasted had been achieved even in his day (Colossians 1:23).

And Our Lord told the Apostles, “solemnly”, that they would not have completed “the rounds of the towns of Israel before the Son of Man comes” (Matthew 10:23).

 

[End of quotes]

 

Biblical exegetes down through the centuries have noted various genuine levels of scriptural interpretation, the first (not necessarily the most important) of which being the literal (concrete) level. Now, this is the very level that many pious and, indeed, well-educated commentators, lacking a really solid grounding in the Scriptures and their era, can tend to skip over, leaving things quite vague and unreal.

Like a Theology without an underpinning solid philosophy.

I had this well in mind when I wrote, in my recent:

 

Isaiah 53 and the afflicted Hezekiah

 

https://www.academia.edu/32522738/Isaiah_53_and_the_afflicted_Hezekiah

 

….

 

The “figure” becomes far less “mysterious”, I would suggest,

if he is to be grounded in some literal flesh and blood person of Isaiah’s day.

 

 

Such Christians as those who tend to relate solely to the New Testament, having an extremely poor knowledge of – even sometimes seeming to be virtually allergic to – the Old Testament, will immediately identify Isaiah’s “Suffering Servant” as Jesus Christ the Messiah, without any consideration that the ancient prophet might have intended, directly and literally, some younger contemporary of his – such as King Hezekiah of Judah, as I suggested in the earlier section:  Hezekiah seems to fit Isaiah 53.

Now, whilst I could never accuse Pope Benedict XVI of discounting the Old Testament – he who in his book, Jesus of Nazareth (2011), is at pains show how the Old Testament prefigures and leads to the New Testament – and that Jesus Christ cannot be properly understood without the Old Testament – also writing along such lines as (p. 202):

 

What is remarkable about these [Four Gospel] accounts [of Jesus’ crucifixion and Death] is the multitude of Old Testament allusions and quotations they contain: word of God and event are deeply interwoven. The facts are, so to speak, permeated with the word – with meaning; and the converse is also true: what previously had been merely word – often beyond our capacity to understand – now becomes reality, its meaning unlocked [,]

 

– Benedict does, nevertheless, seem to bypass any possible ancient identification of Isaiah 53’s Suffering Servant in this next statement of his (I had previously quoted this):

 

“In Isaiah, this figure remains mysterious: the Song of the Suffering Servant

is like a gaze into the future in search of the one who is to come”.

 

The “figure” becomes far less “mysterious”, I would suggest, if he is to be grounded in some literal flesh and blood person of Isaiah’s day: one who also points to “the one who is to come”, who perfectly fulfils Isaiah’s prophecy, but who also re-interprets it, thereby, in the words of Benedict, ‘unlocking its meaning’.

 

Along somewhat similar lines, the prophet Job has remained “mysterious”, and “like a gaze”, without any known genealogy; or era; or country, unless he be “grounded” in his more historically-endowed alter ego, Tobias, son of Tobit. See my:

 

Job’s Life and Times

 

https://www.academia.edu/3787850/Jobs_Life_and_Times

 

And somewhat similar again is the common tendency to lift the Book of Apocalypse (Revelation) right out of its contemporary era, and interpret it almost wholly as a prophecy pertaining to our times, without realising that its “ground” is the C1st AD, though it also “gazes” prophetically into our day with which its shares some striking parallelisms.

But by no means can Apocalypse’s literalness be applied to the modern age.